How the National Bureau of Standards helped make “radio”

This was originally published as “NIST’s Role in the Early Decades of Radio (1911-1933)” on the National Institute of Science and Technology’s blog, Taking Measure…….Dan

Even if you weren’t able to watch the recent Super Bowl on TV, you could still listen to the play-by-play commentary on the radio. But radio does more than just broadcasting sporting events or playing music. It plays a major role in emergency response, navigation and science.

The word “radio,” however, didn’t become part of our regular vocabulary until 1911, and it happened thanks in part to J. Howard Dellinger, a radio scientist at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), the agency that became the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This came about when the second International Radiotelegraph Conference was being planned in London, and a professor sent Dellinger a paper that he was going to present to the conference for review.

At the time, “wireless” was used as the term for radio communication, especially by the British. However, NIST was charged with revising standards in preparation for the conference, and Dellinger suggested that the professor use “radio,” which was already becoming a popular word in the U.S., instead of “wireless.” The professor agreed, and the word “radio” went on to become the universally accepted term.

Dellinger not only played a role in popularizing the word “radio,” but he also played a role in the first radio work done at NIST. A commercial company asked NIST to calibrate a wavemeter, a device developed by one of its engineers that measures electromagnetic waves like those of radio. Dellinger was known as the wireless expert and took on the project of calibrating the first radio instrument at NIST.

A New Type of Radio Receiver

But for radio to become mainstream, it first had to be commercialized, which began with its introduction into households. However, the challenge was building a radio set that used the electrical current, called alternating current (AC), which powered lights, fans and kitchen appliances when plugged into wall sockets. The predecessor to this technology was developed and patented by two researchers, Percival D. Lowell and Francis W. Dunmore, at NBS in 1922. They called their invention the “mousetrap.”

Percival Lowell with his patented radio set powered by alternating current. Credit: NIST

The “mousetrap” was a receiver for a radio amplifier that could run on AC. This was considered a breakthrough because at that time radios were only able to be powered by direct current (DC) provided by batteries. These batteries were bulky and heavy, had to be charged from time to time and were considered dangerous because of the acid used in them. The researchers’ prototype meant the radio could be used in homes without causing damage and with the same performance quality.

Lowell and Dunmore filed two more patents together for other innovations, and for the “mousetrap” they sold the rights to the Dubilier Condenser Corporation. Little did they know that, because there was no uniform policy on patents issued to government employees, their actions would result in more than a decade of litigation over who legally had the rights to the patent.

While they were tied up in court, the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) developed its own model of the AC radio in 1926. Its model later became the first AC-powered radio sold to consumers.

Flying by Radio

During the early years of flight navigation, NIST was doing research to assist pilots while they were flying and landing. Pilots needed three things to get their bearings when flying “blind,” meaning it’s foggy, too dark or too cloudy to see. They needed to know the longitudinal position, altitude and speed of the aircraft, which were all achieved by various beacons installed in the plane. The remaining issue was that there were two frequencies the pilot constantly had to switch between the frequency that the Department of Commerce used to send weather information to planes and ships, which sometimes caused interference for pilots, and the frequency the radio beacon operated on, which gave altitude and other information.

Dunmore created a prototype, but Harry Diamond, a radio engineer who joined NIST in 1927, completed the device, called the radio guidance system. Diamond solved the problem by developing a separate device that allowed for voice communication to the pilot without receiving any outside interference from ships’ radios.

A Curtiss Fledgling, a trainer aircraft developed for the U.S. Navy, was equipped with the device, and flight tests were performed between NIST’s experimental air station at College Park, Maryland, and Newark Airport in New Jersey in foggy weather. After a series of successful tests were performed, the device was turned over to be used by the Department of Commerce in 1933.

Praise From a Famous Inventor

While mostly intended for serious users, some of NIST’s journals and publications were popular with the public. One such book, titled The Principles Underlying Radio Communication, covered topics such as elementary electricity, radio circuits and electromagnetic waves and was also published as a textbook for soldiers in the U.S. Army. The famous inventor Thomas Edison received a copy from NIST and wrote a letter thanking the first director, Samuel W. Stratton, for publishing it, saying it was “the greatest book on this subject that I have ever read.”

As these and other examples show, NIST had a significant influence on radio research between 1911 and 1933. However, NIST’s radio work didn’t end with the first blind landing. NIST would continue to contribute to the field leading up to and during World War II, and research continues to this day in areas such as 5G, public safety communications and spectrum sharing.



 Alex Boss is a general assignment writer in the NIST Public Affairs Office and covers standard reference materials (SRM). She has a B.S. in biology from Rhodes College and an M.A. in health and…

Time to Renew

Arranged alphabetically by Callsign Suffix, at this point we list thesecommunity Club members as _not yet_ having renewed their membership dues for 2020:  


wordpreThe renewal deadline for 2020 membership is the last day of March.  Pleaserenew before then, okay?  Membership and renewal information (PayPal, creditcard, check, or cash):  http://www.k6bj.org/info

Loomis Hamfest 2020

The Sierra Foothills Amateur Radio Club is hosting our 6th Annual Hamfest in Loomis, California, on Saturday, March 21st, 2020!  We are proud to call this a sanctioned ARRL Event.

This year our featured presentation isn’t a presentation, but a workshop on DStar, DMR, Fusion, and Hot Spots.  We will have a table dedicated to each mode.  Elmers will be there to explain how these systems work and will have everything on hand to program your member’s radios!!  We anticipate this to be a very popular program and are excited to make it available to you.

Please follow this LINK to our flyer with all the pertinent information.  Additional information is available on our website at W6EK.org.

Please email and pass out the flyer to your members.  Also, if you would be so kind as to make an announcement on your Club net.  We want any ham interested to have the opportunity to come.

Thank you and we look forward to seeing you and your members at Loomis Hamfest 2020!

Orion Endres, AI6JB
Loomis Hamfest 2020 Chair

American Radio History web site

There are many scans of old time magazines and documents on this site.
There’s a section on amateur radio, old FCC documents, and some foreign
magazines.  I just burned a half hour just browsing the home page to
see what is available.

For example:
   73 Magazine from 1960 – 2003
   Ham Radio Magazine from 1968 – 1990
   Early QST Magazine 1915 – 1949

Enjoy. Jeff, AE6KS

Holiday Luncheon 2019


Welcome to the new K6BJ Reflector!

We are moving from our almost 20 year old service to a more current and standard reflector service.

There are a lot more features and benefits to groups.io.

Please let other Hams know all they have to do is subscribe!

As we learn more, we will be promoting some of the more fun features of Group.io.

Click on the link below to subscribe.

Santa Cruz County Amateur Radio Club k6bj@groups.io

Mailing List for the Santa Cruz County Amateur Radio Club.
Please limit discussion to ham radio topics.

Group Information


Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler

By Dan Romanchik, KB6NU

“Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler” is a quote attributed to Albert Einstein (https://quotationcelebration.wordpress.com/2017/01/07/everything-should-be-made-as-simple-as-possible-but-not-simpler-albert-einstein/comment-page-1/). Here’s one way to apply this principle in amateur radio, specifically to code practice oscillators.

A week ago, my friend, Paul emailed me:

“I am planning on teaching a two-hour introduction to Morse code to 14 girls ages 8 to 9 [[Paul’s granddaughteris a Girl Scout.]]. I plan on having the girls build a code practice device. I need your help in selecting a low cost buzzer and battery holder. Please take a look around and see would you can find. I would like to limit the power to one or two AA batteries.”

I replied that I’d be happy to help him with the demonstration, and offered the following advice:

“A while back, I built the QRPGuys’ K7QO Code Practice Oscillator (https://qrpguys.com/k7qo-code-practice-oscillator). It uses a CR2032 coin battery.

“Unfortunately, they don’t sell it anymore, but the assembly manual is still online (https://qrpguys.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/cpo_assy_012616.pdf). The assembly manual doesn’t call out specific parts, but here are some Amazon SKUs:

  • B00J4BK0NS, Black 3V Electromagnetic Type Piezo Buzzer, 20 pcs/$6.58
  • B06XF3K4NP, Coin Cell Button Battery Holder, 30 pcs/$9
  • B008SNZUYC, 3 Pin PCB Mount Female 3.5mm Stereo Jack, 10 pcs/$5.40
  • B071RMD6FD, 1/8″ 3.5mm Stereo Male Connector, 10 pcs/$7

“Batteries are available at the dollar store for about 30 cents each. So, you could do the whole thing for less than $5 for sure, even with a printed circuit board, which I would suggest that we do. Heck, if you ask nicely, the QRPGuys might even give us the artwork, or even better, have some boards still in stock. Even if they have neither, you should be able to get the boards in plenty of time.”

Later that day, Paul replied:

Thanks, Dan, for the information and making yourself available to help. I am just going to use a buzzer, key, and battery. The buzzer has a frequency of 400 Hz.

And this morning, he sent me this photo, noting, “FYI. Also sounds great.”

I think that this is as good an example of “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler” as there can be. I’ve volunteered to help Paul with his class. That will be fun, too.


Dan Romanchik, KB6NU, is the author of the KB6NU amateur radio blog (KB6NU.Com), the “No Nonsense” amateur radio license study guides (KB6NU.Com/study-guides/), and often appears on the ICQPodcast (icqpodcast.com). When he’s not trying to keep things as simple as possible, but not simpler, he likes to build stuff and operate CW on the HF bands.


Mark your calendar for the January 17, 2020 Santa Cruz County Amateur Radio Club meeting at the Red Cross Center (2960 Soquel Avenue, Santa Cruz).  The meeting will begin at 7:30pm, with a brief business meeting, followed by a not-to-be-missed guest presentation by Ron Skelton (W6WO), an antenna expert, who will discuss efficient designs of vertical antennas.


Please contact Richard (K8SQB) <scgooner@att.net> or

Becky (KI6TKB) <ki6tkb@yahoo.com>


Annual Club membership dues are due January 1 and can be paid at the annual Holiday Luncheon at Ming’s (Dec. 14).

SCCARC ANNUAL DUES (Due January 1) Full Member: $25.00 Family Members: $6.00 for each additional member at the same mailing address Youth Members: $10.00 for full-time students age 18 or under Dues for new, first time members (not renewals) shall be pro-rated after April 1 of each year, as follows: • Reduced 25% between April 1 and June 30 • Reduced 50% between July 1 and September 30 • Reduced 75% between October 1 and December 1 After December 1, full payment shall be required, and dues shall be applied to the following year. Annual Dues are due January 1. Members over three months in arrears in the payment of dues shall be considered inactive, thereby relinquishing privileges in the Club.

MEMBERSHIP is open to any and all persons.
Membership dues may be paid securely online using the Donate button above, with PayPal or a credit card.

PLEASE NOTE: We appreciate the convenience of using PayPal to transmit funds to your Club. However, PayPal subtracts fees from each payment in the amount of 2.9% of the base amount plus $.30 per transaction. In order to keep your Club from losing money as a result of this convenience to you, we request that you include an amount equal to these fees in addition to the base amount of your payment. Example: To pay dues of $25.00, add $.73 + $.30 for a total of $26.03. We appreciate your cooperation.

Also, with your payment, please include a comment including your callsign or purpose of donation. Or, Membership dues may be paid with cash, or check (payable to Santa Cruz County Amateur Radio Club), at regular Club meetings, or checks with completed Membership Application Form may be mailed to the club’s mailing address: SCCARC PO BOX 238 SANTA CRUZ CA 95061-0238 Dues Renewals may be paid in these same ways. Thanks!

Getting Loopy – by John Keating AI6LY / November, 2019

How the hunt for the source of RF interference led to the realization that the resonant frequency of my small transmitting loop antenna moves inversely with ambient temperature.

Why I got interested loop antennas

In 2017 I experienced particularly disruptive QRM in the evenings on 40M. (See nasty bits recurring every 20 kHz in the panadapter image below). Based on rotating my HF antenna, I determined the source was directly south from my QTH. I had seen W0IVJ’s  article, “Locating RF Interference at HF,” in November 2014 QST and decided to build the small receiving loop he described, pair it with a small shortwave receiver, and walk up and down the street.

I tried a few times to locate the exact source, but the antenna really didn’t have sufficient directivity to identify the culprit. So, just for amusement I tried to use it for transmitting.  Predictably, the air variable tuning capacitor arced at low power – about 10W if I recall correctly – so I figured the whole thing needed to be scaled up. But first, I acquired a Pixel Technologies/DXE RF-PRO-1B receive-only loop to investigate claims about its directivity; it was interesting for the obvious lateral nulls, but I found its gain and SNR didn’t compete with my EX-14 tribander.

What is a “Magnetic Loop” antenna?

For quick background, a small transmitting loop antenna consists of a loop whose circumference is between one-eighth and one-third of a wavelength. It is essentially an inductor which can be resonated with a fixed or variable capacitor to form a high-Q tuned circuit. It radiates a figure-8 pattern in the plane of the loop, and exhibits deep nulls broadside. Reasonable performance can be achieved when operated at heights that are only a fraction of a wavelength – slightly more than one loop diameter – above ground level. RF current through the loop creates a strong magnetic field which, in turn, generates an electric field; hence, the name “magnetic loop.” 

The scale-up

Over the course of many months, I home-brewed several loops using various sizes of aluminum and copper tubing before settling on a roughly 1 meter diameter radiating loop of half-inch copper tube, tuned by a large vacuum variable Russian surplus capacitor (see photo), all mounted on a PVC pipe mast.  The 5-250pF 5kV variable capacitor has enough range to tune from 10 to 40 meters and sufficient voltage rating to withstand levels generated at transmit power up to about 300 hundred watts. The capacitor shaft is coupled to a gearhead reduction motor driven by a PCM speed controller whose low frequency control signals are multiplexed on the coax feed line. The feed loop is approximately 1/5 the diameter of the radiating loop, and there is an RF choke at its feedpoint. During early testing, I had to experiment with the vertical position of the feed loop to determine the location for optimum SWR, now typically 1.05:1. I also tried several different variable capacitors.


AA5TB has a nice excel file that generated the following predictions for my design operated at 20m:

Bandwidth = 28.806 kHz (-3 dB points)

Efficiency = 28.806 %

Wavelength Percentage = 13.163 % λ

Loop dc Inductance = 2.407 μH

QL (Quality Factor) = 511.686 

Total tuning Capacitor = 52.736 pF

Capacitor Voltage = 3306.179 V rms (at 100W drive)

Initial testing confirmed the expected high Q/narrow bandwidth characteristic; on 20m it was 23 kHz (3:1 SWR) and 13 kHz (2:1 SWR), with a measured Q of 744.  The tuning capacitance of 49pF (nominal) was very close to the calculated result.  Resonant frequency was very sensitive to changes in capacitance. So, when I set the antenna up for operation and saw a lot of drift, I suspected thermal effects and decided to investigate.

Characterizing the temperature issue

With the antenna set up in the backyard and tuned to an arbitrary point in the 20m band, I logged the resonant frequency and ambient temperature over a period of about 36 hours (without transmitting during that period).  The data, shown in charts below, clearly indicate that resonant frequency varies inversely with temperature. On average, the change was about -1.6 kHz per degree F. The steepest rate of change was 500 Hz/minute which occurred at about 3PM on the second afternoon as the temperature declined from 82F with antenna in direct sun to 75F with antenna in shade.  Given the robust construction of the copper elements, I attribute the drift to the glass-encased capacitor becoming a mini-greenhouse. I plan to perform additional testing with a shade on the capacitor, and also to find the impact on resonant frequency from transmitting at different power levels.

Thermal issues aside, is it a good antenna?

In limited daytime on-air testing, the antenna “did what it is supposed to do.” I QSO’d with a station in Hawaii whose signal was about four S-units weaker on the loop than on my EX-14 tri-band yagi. His signal dropped six S-units when I turned the loop broadside to Hawaii. There was little difference in band noise between the loop and tribander, not surprising since the noise level was very low on the day of the test. Band noise on the loop was two S-units higher when turned broadside (i.e., orientated for roughly North/South figure 8 pattern), while noise increased only about one half S-unit with the tribander aimed similarly, due to its front-to-back characteristics. In transmit, the signal received by the Hawaiian station from the loop was two S-units weaker than the tribander with both aimed at Hawaii.  When I turned the loop broadside, the signal received in Hawaii was seven S-units lower than when the loop was aimed direct. Signal reports were measured during SSB phone exchanges on FTDX-3000 radios at both stations. 

  Loop EX-14 Loop vs EX-14
Signal received at AI6LY, RX direct S-5 S-9 -4
Signal received at AI6LY, RX broadside S-1 n/a  
Signal received in Hawaii, TX direct S-7 S-9 -2
Signal received in Hawaii, TX broadside S-0 n/a  
20m band noise, East-West S-1 S-1  
20m band noise, North-South S-3 S-1.5  

There are many fine articles about small loop antennas. However in my reading I had not seen the thermal issue raised per se. TF2LJ has posted an interesting page on a DIY arduino-based stepper motor-driven autotuner for loop antennas, citing the high-Q as the cause for retuning the antenna if you move your operating frequency by more than a few kHz, but without mention of the temperature sensitivity. In email correspondence to me, VK5KLT made the amusing comment that not only does the small loop make an excellent ambient temperature sensor, but when placed horizontally it also couples to the proximate ground and makes an excellent ground moisture transducer / sensor as well….

To conclude, the antenna works. It is directional (for vertically polarised sky-wave signals arriving at very low elevation angles), and is generally insensitive to ground effects (since the ground does not form the “missing half” of the antenna). Due to the high-Q of the resonator, one must occasionally adjust the tuning to keep the SWR in an acceptable range as it shifts due to changes in humidity and temperature.  The performance limitations and the necessity of retuning are the tradeoffs for utilizing a small footprint antenna.


November Meeting Recap

1) November Club Meeting Board Elections and Guest Presentation to a Full House!

The November 15 Club meeting was great fun, and brought radio operators and will-be radio operators from far and wide.  The first item of Club business was to elect new Board officers, which occurred quickly.  Here are the new officers that will serve for the next two years:

President: Becky Steinbruner (Ki6TKB)

Vice President: Richard Adams (K8SQB)

Secretary: John Gerhardt (N6QX)

Treasurer: Allen Fugelseth (WB6RWU)

Board Member: David Dean (N6DTH)

Board Member: Cap Pennell (KE6AFE)

Board Member (past President): Don Taylor (K6GHA)

Repeater Committee:

Nate Preston (KM6THE)

Craig Harlamoff (N6SBN)  (special interest in digital modes)

Duane Titus (K6TS)

Many thanks to Gary Watson (K6PDL) and Ned Rice (N6ZOZ) for serving on the Board for the past two years.  We hope they will remain involved in Board discussions as important issues move forward.

A GREAT PRESENTATION BY ERIC SWARTZ (WA6HHQ) followed.  Eric, owner of Elecraft, brought one of the new K4 Direct Sampling SRR HF transceivers that his company has developed and is currently taking orders for production.  He brought a model to demonstrate the amazing technology and kept us all spellbound for the rest of the evening.


Open Shack (Its Better Than A Flea Market)


Greetings to one and all, this is an invitation to an:-
Open Shack (better than a flea market) event at my home in Capitola

Saturday Dec7 from 10:00 AM to 4:00 PM

Pizza served for lunch at noon.
After 70 years of Ham Radio it is time for me to part with many Ham related items. Where possible I found the probable cost new then offer them at 50%.
In all cases I invite offers at What It’s worth to you the buyer.
Apache Labs Anan 100D an open source Software Defined HF Radio. The new owner will receive a 34 page professional test report on this specific unit $1,350.
I will send you a list of features via email if interested.
A SignalLinkUSB unit set up for K3 orKS3 is $75
Cushcraft R6000 HF vertical (20 to 6m) $225.
Astron 30A linear power supply $40
Alinco switching power supply 15v 5A individually adjustable $25
Diamond X200A VHF/UHF Base/rptr vertical $70. Mag-mount UHF /VHFvertical
FreeTalk wireless headset
50 Ohm 50 Watt Dummy load. N connector DC-8GHz $35
MFJ 281 ClearTalk loudspeaker RadioShack compact stereo loudspeaker
Many through-hole R L C components A 7×9” through-hole project board
Good collection of Surface Mounted components
Many lengths of coax. and several lengths of Al tubing- free
Collections of QST and QEX journals, various ARRL Handbooks and reference books
Fujifilm FinePix camera
Hustler mobile antenna, base, top plate and elements for 17, 15 and 10M $30
These are all in good shape, so hopefully my surplus will quickly become your treasure. Reasonable offers only please, of course no tax and shipment costs are involved. Sight unseen offers OK but I will send items only via a USPS Flat-rate carton.
Contact me by email if you have any questions ronskelton@cruzio.com 831 477 1021
Please come and have some fun on Dec7
Addr 4220 Gull Cove Way Capitola
73 Ron W6WO


How to get “plugged in” to the amateur radio community

By Dan Romanchik, KB6NU

This morning, I found this email in my inbox:

Thank you for your website and great content. I passed the Tech and General tests on Saturday, and I will be taking the Extra exam in November. Your “No Nonsense” guides were very helpful.

I do have a question, though. How do I stay current on what’s happening in the ham world?For example the CQ WW SSB contest was this weekend. How do newbies know this kind of thing? How do we find local or regional hamfests and other events?

This is a great question. Like any special interest, it can seem daunting to get plugged in (pun intended) to the community. Here are a few of my suggestions:

Join the ARRL (http://arrl.org/). The American Radio Relay League (ARRL) is really the place to start for information related to amateur radio.QST, the ARRL’s monthly magazine, includes news about upcoming contests and ARRL-sanctioned hamfests. It also reviews new amateur radio products and provides a wealth of technical information.

In addition to QST, the ARRL publishes many email newsletters that members can subscribe to. For example, Contest Update is a biweekly newsletter that not only lists upcoming contests, but also includes tips on operating contests. The ARES E-Letter is a monthly public service and emergency communications newsletters. There are also email newsletters for ham radio instructors, those interested in DX, legislative matters, and satellite operation.

Join your local club. While the ARRL will help you keep abreast of amateur radio news and events nationally and internationally, if you want to know what going on in amateur radio in your area, you should join your local club. To find clubs near you, go to http://www.arrl.org/find-a-club.

Visit the WA7BNM Contest Calendar (https://www.contestcalendar.com/). This contest calendar has become my go-to resource for any and all contest information. This site provides detailed information about amateur radio contests throughout the world, including their scheduled dates/times, rules summaries, log submission information and links to the official rules as published by the contest sponsors. Its features include an 8-Day calendar, a 12-Month calendar, and separate calendars for state QSO parties, CW contests, and QRP contests. You can also get a weekly e-mail of contests taking place in an 8-day period (Monday through Monday), as well as a list of contests scheduled for the next week and a list of log submission information for recent contests.

Ham radio blogs. Blogs are also a good way to keep up with what’s going on in amateur radio. I like to think that I do a good job of covering what’s going on in amateur radio, but, of course, I can’t do it all. That being the case, you might also want read other blogs. Other amateur radio blogs that you might want to check out include:

  • The K0NR Radio Site (http://www.k0nr.com/wordpress/)
  • QRP–When you care to send the very least (https://w2lj.blogspot.com/)
  • Everything Ham Radio (https://www.everythinghamradio.com/)

There are a bunch of other good ones out there. Find the ones you like and subscribe to them, so that you get a notification when new items are posted.

Mailing lists. Mailing lists are kind of old school, but if you have a special interest, chances are that there is a mailing list for it. For example, I own an Elecraft KX-3, so I subscribe to the Elecraft KX User Group mailing list (https://groups.io/g/Elecraft-KX/). Many amateur radio mailing lists are migrating to the Groups.io. To find a list, just click on the “Find or Create a Group” link at the top of the page. I just did a search for “amateur radio” and found 910 different amateur radio mailing lists.

Podcasts and videocasts. Podcasts are also another great way to stay up with amateur radio. I’m partial to theICQPodcast (http://icqpodcast.com/) because I am on the panel once a month. The podcast not only includes a discussion of what’s new in amateur radio, but also a feature, which digs a little deeper into a particular topic. Other great podcasts are Ham Radio Workbench (https://www.hamradioworkbench.com/), and Linux in the Ham Shack (https://lhspodcast.info/). Internet video shows that are worth checking out are Ham Radio 2.0 (https://www.livefromthehamshack.tv/), Ham Radio Now (https://www.hamradionow.tv/home), and Ham Nation (https://twit.tv/shows/ham-nation).

This is by no means an exhaustive list. If you have an amateur radio information resource that you find particular helpful, please let me know.


Dan Romanchik, KB6NU, is the author of the KB6NU amateur radio blog (KB6NU.Com), the “No Nonsense” amateur radio license study guides (KB6NU.Com/study-guides/), and often appears on the ICQPodcast (icqpodcast.com). When he’s not trying to keep up with ham radio, he likes to build stuff and  operate CW on the HF bands.